Dating circle org id 2574
As the insect SW opsin class was lost prior to the radiation of Coleoptera, blue light sensitivity must have secondarily arisen in Coleoptera through an alternative mechanism to that of other insects.
Recent evidence suggests that blue light sensitivity in jewel beetles (Buprestidae) has been achieved through duplication and subfunctionalization of the UV and/or LW opsin genes.
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The SW opsin class was also not recovered from these samples, indicating that it has been lost in both major life stages.
Similarly, both sexes were sequenced for 15 species, indicating that the SW opsin loss is not sex specific.
While the majority of samples were derived from adult tissue (Table S1), larval tissue was also sequenced for 11 species.To address this, we examined the opsin repertoire of a broad diversity of beetles representing most major lineages and included beetles with a wide range of life histories (e.g., diurnal, nocturnal, predaceous and pollinating beetles).Additionally, exemplars from the closely related orders Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites), Raphidioptera (snake flies), Megaloptera (alderflies, fishflies and dobsonflies) and Neuroptera (lacewings, antlions and mantidflies), comprising the other major lineages of the clade Neuropteroidea For this study, over two billion RNA-seq reads were assembled into more than six million gene transcripts (Table S1).In total, 204 opsins were recovered, of which 73% encode full-length proteins (Tables S2 and S3).In a homology search of 74 coleopteran transcriptomes across 29 families and 19 of 21 superfamilies, the SW opsin was not recovered.